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印度何以成为世界“蛇咬”之都

来源:  BBSGood社区    时间:2019-08-04 10:00:06   关注:121   转发


 Why India is a world’s “snakebite” capital?


印度何以成为世界“蛇咬”之都?


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Snake bites: The deadly health crisis that's hidden from our gaze


蛇咬人:隐藏在我们视线之外的致命威胁


Monsoons are the time when snakes come out — to play, hunt and mate. Their dens flooded, they seek refuge in dry patches where often the reticent reptiles cross path with humans, resulting in a season of fatal snake bites every year.


雨季是蛇出没、捕食和交配的时节。它们的巢穴被洪水淹没,便在干燥的地方寻找避难所,在这些地方人类经常碰上这种飘无声息的爬行动物,导致每年都出现蛇咬死人的高发季节。


Sunil Limaye’s phone doesn’t stop ringing in these months. The additional principal chief conservator of forests in Maharashtra gets an average of two snakebite complaints daily June to September. “We’ve received more than 70 calls this year,” said Limaye last week.


苏尼尔·利马耶的手机这几个月一直响个不停。这位马哈拉施特拉邦新增的首席森林管理员在6月至9月平均每天收到两起被蛇咬伤的投诉。利马耶上周称:“我们今年接到了70多个电话。”


Unknown to many, India is likely the world’s snakebite capital. In 2017, the Union health ministry collated countrywide data between April and October. The survey recorded 1.14 lakh cases across the country in the six-month period before and after the monsoon. Maharashtra led the pack of states with 24,437 cases, followed by West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and Karnataka.


很多人不知道,印度很可能是世界蛇咬之都。2017年,联邦卫生部整理了全国4月至10月的数据。该调查记录了季风前后6个月里全国11.4万起案例。马哈拉施特拉邦以24437例位居榜首,其次是西孟加拉邦、安得拉邦、奥里萨邦和卡纳塔克邦。


Herpetologists, doctors and science-ecology experts have long held that official numbers in India are grossly underestimated. The World Health Organisation listed snake bites under ‘neglected tropical diseases’ in 2017. Its datasheet said under-reporting of snakebite incidence and mortality was common. “A very large community-level study in India gave a direct estimate of 45,900 deaths in 2005… over 30 times higher than the official figure”.


长期以来,爬虫学家、医生和生态学专家一直认为,印度的官方数据严重低估了。2017年,世界卫生组织将蛇咬伤列为“被忽视的热带病”。该机构的数据表显示,被蛇咬伤的发生率和死亡率经常漏报。“印度一项大规模的社区调研估计2005年有45900人被蛇咬而身亡……比官方数字高出30多倍”。


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It was referring to the national mortality survey of 1.1 million homes as part of Centre for Global Health Research’s Million Death Study in 2011, which put the annual death from snake bite at 45,900 in 2005. There are no accurate records to determine exact mortality. National Crime Records Bureau noted just 8,554 deaths from snake bite in 2015.


该调研参考了全球健康研究中心(center for Global Health Research) 2011年对110万户家庭进行的全国死亡率调查,该调查是该中心“百万死亡研究”(million Death Study)的一部分。该研究认为,2005年,每年死于蛇咬伤的人数为45900人。但没有准确的记录来确定死亡率。国家犯罪记录局指出,2015年只有8554人死于蛇咬伤。


In a unique initiative, a 257-member WhatsApp group called ‘Snakebite Interest Group’ is striving to attend to cases across the country. Created in 2015 by Dr Dayalbandhu Mazumdar, a Bengal-based ophthalmologist and an expert in snakebite management, and administered by Priyanka Kadam, a Mumbai-based crusader against snake bites, the community of 240 doctors spans 14 states and Nepal. It works alongside activists and herpetologists and says it has saved more than 3,500 victims in the past four years.


WhatsApp推出了一项独特的倡议,一个名为“毒蛇咬伤兴趣小组”(Snakebite Interest group)的组织,由257名成员组成,正在努力处理全国各地的蛇咬伤案件。2015年,孟加拉眼科医生、蛇咬伤管理专家达亚班杜·马祖姆达尔博士创建了这个组织,由孟买的反蛇咬斗士普里扬卡·卡达姆负责管理。这个由240名医生组成的组织遍布14个邦以及尼泊尔。该组织与活动人士和爬虫学家合作,称在过去四年里,该组织已经拯救了3500多名受害者。


The death of 10-year-old Manan Vora from Gujarat’s Bhavnagar — while holidaying with his family at a luxury resort in Diu when a cobra hiding in his pillowcase bit him — showed how ill-equipped urban centres are in dealing with snakebites. Although Manan was rushed to a hospital, he was put on antibiotics instead of anti-venom and advised transfer to a hospital 17km away.


古吉拉特邦巴夫纳加尔10岁的马南•沃拉在与家人在第乌的一个豪华度假胜地度假时,一条藏在枕套里的眼镜蛇咬了他,不幸身亡。这显示了市中心在处理蛇咬伤方面相当缺乏设备。尽管马南被紧急送往医院,但医生没有给他注射抗蛇毒素,而是给他注射了抗生素,并建议他转到17公里外的一家医院。


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More harmful than the venom is belief in occult practice and healers. Devendri in Bulandshahar, UP, was collecting firewood when a cobra bit her. Her husband chose a faith healer. She was buried in dung for 75 minutes. She didn’t survive. For another it was burial in salt, and for some it’s stones and leaves, roots and twigs.


比毒液更有害的是对神秘习俗和治疗师(用自然力而非药物治疗别人者)的迷信。布兰德夏哈尔的德文德里正在拾柴火,突然一条眼镜蛇咬了她。她丈夫选择了一位信仰治疗师。她被埋在粪堆里75分钟,但她没活下来。有人把伤者埋在盐里,有人把伤者埋在石头、树叶、树根和树枝里。


Dr Dilip Punde who has treated around 7,000 snakebite cases in Nanded (Maharashtra) over three decades says he urges traditional healers to redirect snakebite victims to a health centre. It takes 100ml of anti-venom within 100 minutes of a bite to save a life. But even when available, it can be prohibitively expensive, pushing poor victims further into poverty and debt. A vial of anti-snake venom costs Rs 250 to Rs 500, and a loading dose for a venomous bite requires at least 10 vials.


Dilip Punde博士在马哈拉施特拉邦治疗了大约7000例蛇咬伤患者。他敦促传统治疗师将蛇咬伤患者转到健康中心。100毫升的抗蛇毒素应在100分钟内注射才能挽救一条生命。但是,即便如此,其成本也可能高得令人望而却步,使贫穷的患者进一步陷入贫困和债务之中。一瓶抗蛇毒素的价格在250卢比到500卢比之间,而治愈一次毒蛇咬伤的剂量至少需要10瓶。


印度时报读者的评论:


译文来源:三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com/48166.html 译者:Jessica.Wu


外文:https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com


Dennis Dias•2 hours ago •Follow


Snake bites are high in India because snakes are been rescued where bitten humans are not which should have been the priority. Rescued reptiles goes elsewhere and bites some more human beings and kills them, yet they are been rescued.


在印度,被蛇咬伤的比例很高,蛇有人搭救,而被咬伤的人却无人问津。蛇被放生了,会咬伤更多的人,造成更多的人丧命,但蛇还是会被放生。


 


kakasaheb lonkar•3 hours ago


Need to strengthen govt. policy. Still we are lacking to minimize traveling distance from victimization location to treatment center.,Recommending stock buildup at every hospital presence in village. Still people need to travel at district hospital to treat on snake bite, more delayed in treatment is directly proportional to risk of survival. Absence of antidote and distance covered is responsible for deaths in country..


政府应出台相关政策。我们应把患者送到最近的治疗中心。建议村里每一家医院都增加抗蛇毒素库存。目前,人们仍然需要到地区医院治疗蛇咬伤,越是延误治疗,死亡风险就越大。在这个国家,没有血清和送医距离远是造成死亡的主要原因。


 


Imran Ahmed•3 hours ago


Last time I checked, India was the "RAPE" capital. Don''t try to change your heritage HAHAHA


我记得印度是“强奸”之都啊。不要试图改变你的传统,哈哈哈


 


Ashwani Kumar•Unknown•3 hours ago


The problem could be due to poor health systems and lack of awareness.


这个问题可能是由于卫生系统落后,民众缺乏意识造成的。


 


anmol•noida•3 hours ago


India has many such cases but no action or very few action is taken towards it by our government


印度出现很多蛇咬人事件,但是我们的政府没有采取行动,或者很少采取行动


 


Jayant Chettri•3 hours ago


Governments at the centre and states must be more proactive about this menace.


中央政府和各邦政府务必采取措施应对这一威胁


 


Rudolph Furtado•4 hours ago


Snakes won''t attack humans or other large animals unless provoked or accidentally stepped on. Its a tendency in villages to kill a snake on sighting one and the same should be discouraged by educating locals about the benefits of snakes in controlling the rodent population that destroy crops. Village hospitals should store adequate amount of anti-venom for treating snake bites and superstitious people educated about snake bite treatment and avoiding treatment by local faith healers .


蛇不会攻击人类的,除非被激怒或你不小心踩到蛇。在村里,人们一看到蛇就会把它杀死,应该告诉村民蛇带来的好处,比如蛇能压制那些破坏农作物的啮齿类动物数量,通过这种方式教育村民。乡村医院应储备足够的抗蛇毒药物,用于治疗蛇咬伤,并向迷信人士传授有关蛇咬伤治疗的知识,别让人们接受当地信仰治疗师的治疗。


 


Sambappa Kalvala•4 hours ago


Poorest of poor are vulnerable to snake bites


穷人往往最容易被蛇咬


 


Yesaeti Enaegi•4 hours ago


Why just snakebite? India is also the Dogbite capital of the world. Stray dogs don''t have it as good anywhere as in India!


为什么只提蛇咬人?印度也是世界狗咬之都。流浪狗在印度过得比在任何国家都舒服


Jaant Chettri• Yesaeti Enaegi•3 hours ago


Yes. India hasn''t taken any precautionary measures for dog bites in a large way. Governments at the centre and states must have a program to control the population of stray dogs in the country which is increasing at an alarming rate.


是的。印度还没有采取措施,应对狗咬伤人的事件。在印度,流浪狗以惊人的速度增长,印度中央政府和各邦务必制定一个计划,控制流浪狗的数量。


 


Ravi Punuru•4 hours ago


It is capital for all the diseases,snake bite is just one of it.


印度是所有疾病之都,蛇咬只是其中之一。


 


TSR The Urbanist•Namma Bengaluru•4 hours ago


Life and Death is a routine process and there has to be an ecological balance...Death can be in many ways and one is destined for some mode..


生死是常事,要达到生态平衡嘛……死亡有很多种方式,人注定要以某种方式死去…


 


Mohan•5 hours ago


Our mortality rate is dipping. Somehow we need to find ways to reduce population


印度的死亡率正在下降。我们要想办法减少人口


 


Pradeep•Unknown•5 hours ago


India is also ''mosquito bite capital'', ''bee bite capital'' and ''dog bite capital'' to name a few others!


印度也是“蚊子叮咬之都”、“蜜蜂叮咬之都”和“狗咬之都”等等!


 


Smolensk•5 hours ago


Hindus don''t eat Beef. So Snakes are angry.


印度教徒不吃牛肉。所以蛇很生气。


 


Hemadri Ray•5 hours ago


After collection of snake venom got banned, the effectiveness of anti venom injections against local variants of venomous species has declined.


在被禁止采集蛇毒后,注射抗蛇毒剂对本地蛇毒变种的效果有所下降。


 


TRUTH BE TOLD•You can't handle the Truth!!!•5 hours ago


45000 death is a country of over 1 billion is nothing!!! Dont make everything a big deal and brand India as this capital of the world and that capital of the world. Looks like many people are interested in tagging India highlighting all the wrongness which infact are negligible. A lot of these statistics have infact improved over the years which they fail to acknowledge.


印度人口超过10亿,死了45000人,不算什么!!


别小题大做,别把印度标榜为什么世界之都。看起来很多人喜欢给印度扣帽子啊。


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