[网址导航] 登录 

要真正进行警察改革,印度需要的不仅仅是资金

来源:  三泰虎    时间:2020-07-15 15:38:32   关注:154   转发
India needs more than just money to truly reform its police

要真正进行警察改革,印度需要的不仅仅是资金

The instances of police brutality across the globe have stirred grief and anger.

世界各地的警察暴行激起了人们的悲痛和愤怒。

And yet, the death of George Floyd happened in a context that was entirely different from that of the alleged custodial deaths of J Jayaraj and his son, Bennicks Immanuel. While Black Lives Matter protests across the US called for defunding the police, in India, these reported killings asked for a complete reform of the police forces.

然而,美国黑人乔治·弗洛伊德之死发生的背景与印度的J·贾亚拉杰及其子本尼斯·伊曼纽尔在拘留期间死亡的背景完全不同。美国各地的“黑人的命也是命”(Black Lives Matter)抗议活动呼吁取消对警察部门的拨款,而在印度,则要求对警察队伍进行彻底改革。

The call for police reform is not new, and the go nment has enabled several committees to create a roadmap to modernise the forces. This call has also been intensified when gangster Vikas Dubey was allegedly killed by the police in an encounter. And yet, change has been slow to come. Most of the Indian states, for instance, only spend 3% of their annual budgets towards maintaining the police force, and have widespread human resource shortages.

对警务改革的呼吁并不新鲜,政府已经授权几个委员会创建现代化警察部队的路线图。当歹徒维卡斯·杜贝被警察击毙时,这种呼声也进一步加强。然而,改革缓慢,印度大多数邦的年度预算中只有3%用于维持警察队伍,而且人力资源普遍短缺。

But simply more funds for the police is not going to reduce cases of brutality, according to Maja Daruwala, senior advisor for Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative, and editor of the India Justice Report. “It’s important to see if current spending is enough and properly utilised before reaching any conclusion on what better-policing costs,” she said.

但是,联邦人全倡议组织高级顾问、《印度司法报道》编辑Maja Daruwala认为,仅仅为警察部门提供更多的资金并不能减少暴丽案件。她说:“重要的是,在决定增加经费之前,要看看当前的支出是否足够,是否得到了恰当的利用。”

In an interview with Quartz, Daruwala speaks of the problems with budgetary allocations for the police force, why it hasn’t been modernised, and what states can do immediately to improve the level of sensitisation among officers. Edited excerpts:

在Quartz的采访中,Daruwala谈到了警察部门的预算分配问题,为什么没有实现现代化,以及各邦可以立即做些什么来提高警察的警觉性。摘录:

Is the amount that Indian states currently spend on their police force enough?

Policing is a state subject, and each state has its own autonomous police department. Expenditure by the states on their police force has a direct bearing on its core competency, for instance, in the form of available human resources and infrastructure. According to the India Justice Report, most states spent anywhere between 3% and 5% of their total budget (in 2015-16) on policing. For some states that were under the Armed Forces Special Powers Act, this share was higher at 10%. About 90% of these budgetary allocations is spent on salaries since the police is a personnel-intensive service. The operational expense of running police stations or capacity building for personnel is therefore greatly reduced.

For the current financial year, the total union budget allocation for the police by the ministry of home affairs was Rs1.05 lakh crore ($15 billion), an increase of over Rs2,000 crore from the previous year. Under this budget, it has brought the per capita spend on police to approximately Rs873 ($11.63). This includes the spending on central forces and central schemes such as the modernisation of police forces (MPF).

Poor budgetary allocations do leave the police inadequately resourced and staffed, however current publicly available data is insufficient to conclude whether budgetary allocations are adequate or if utilisation is effective or will improve performance if increased.

印度各邦目前对警察队伍的经费投入是否足够?

维持治安是各邦的职责,每个邦都有自治警察部门。国家对其警察部队的支出直接影响到其核心能力,例如可用的人力资源和基础设施。根据《印度司法报道》,大多数邦在维持治安方面的支出占其总预算(2015-2016年)的3%至5%。对于一些受《武装部队特别权力法案》管辖的邦,这一比例更高,为10%。由于警察部门是一个人员密集的部门,这些预算拨款的90%都花在了薪水上。因此,大大降低了派出所运营费用或人员能力建设费用。

本财政年度,印度内政部给警察部门的联邦预算拨款总额为1.05万亿卢比(合150亿美元),比前一年增加了200亿多卢比。在这一预算下,印度在警察方面的人均支出达到约873卢比(合11.63美元)。这包括在中央部队和中央计划方面的开支,例如警察部队现代化(MPF)。

较少的预算拨款确实使警察缺乏足够的资源和人手,但目前公开的数据不足以断定预算拨款是否充足、使用是否有效或增加后是否会改善绩效。

How do these budgetary allocations compare with police forces globally?

Budgetary allocations are based on a number of factors, and one should be wary of making comparisons with other countries with smaller populations.

In 2018-19, the United Kingdom spent £1.13 billion ($1.43 billion) on its police. In light of recent calls to defund the police in America, we now have data that tells us that for the 2019 fiscal year, the New York Police Department alone spent nearly $6 billion.

Here too, nearly all police spending (97%) was for operational costs, such as salaries and benefits. Over the last five decades, capital spending has never accounted for more than 5% of police spending.

An efficient and effective police can only be created through a constant evaluative process.

No matter what the allocation, it is important to tie spending to outcomes. An efficient and effective police can only be created through a constant evaluative process that surveys the needs of policing and aligns budgets accordingly.

这些预算拨款与全球警察队伍相比如何?

2018- 2019年,英国在警察部门的开支为11.3亿英镑(14.3亿美元)。鉴于美国最近要求取消警察经费的呼声,我们现在有数据显示,在2019财年,仅纽约警察局的经费就达到近60亿美元。

几乎所有的经费(97%)都用作运营成本,比如工资和福利。在过去的50年里,资本支出从未超过警察经费的5%。

只有通过不断的评估,才能建立有效率的警察队伍。

无论经费分配如何,重要的是要将支出与成效挂钩。只有通过不断的评估,调查警察部门的需要并据此调整预算,才能建立有效率的警察队伍。

What else can be done immediately to reduce the cases of brutality on the part of the police against citizens?

Brutality and impunity of the police are a reality, and unfortunately, reforms remain in the rhetoric stage. The recent Tamil Nadu custodial torture case has garnered much attention and outrage, and rightly so. Official statistics show that in 2018 there were 70 deaths in police custody. Data show that for 1,727 custodial deaths being recorded in India between 2001 and 2018, only 26 policemen were convicted.

There are a number of things that can be done immediately. First, ensure there is zero-tolerance for every infraction big or small has negative consequences for the perpetrator. States could also review the way that recruitment is done and increase the diversity profile of the force from top to bottom. There is a need to radically overhaul induction training and make it “real,” ensuring that pre-existing societal biases are cleansed and belief in lawful procedure is made paramount.

还能立即采取什么措施来减少警察对公民的暴行?

警方的暴行和有罪不罚已是现实,不幸的是,改革仍停留在口头阶段。最近泰米尔纳德邦的拘留虐待案引起了人们的广泛关注和愤怒。官方数据显示,2018年有70人在警方拘留期间死亡。数据显示,在2001年至2018年期间,印度记录的1727例拘留期间死亡案中,只有26名警察被定罪。

有许多可以立即采取的措施。首先,确保对警察违法行为(无论大小)采取零容忍的态度。各邦还可以审查征聘方式,并从上到下增加警察队伍的多样性。有必要彻底改革入职培训,确保消除先前存在的社会偏见,确保对合法程序的信仰至高无上。



以下是美国雅虎读者的评论:译者:Jessica.Wu

kurt

Police reform? In India? Good luck.

警察改革?在印度吗?祝好运。



Amjad

That is real life of India.

这就是印度的真实生活。



Anonymous

Police reform in India means they put on shoes from flip flops.

印度的警察改革意味着让警察脱掉人字拖,穿上鞋子。



billy

Money has nothing to do with reforming behavior.

金钱与改变行为毫无关系。



debra

India is a whole other story.

印度就另当别论了



FreeMan75

have look at these animals ... and animals are better !

看看这些畜生……畜生都比他们好!



dude

They need toilets

他们需要的是厕所



Bruno

Half the people in India are starving

印度有一半的人都在挨饿



:)(:

Good luck. Corruption is there source of wealth.

祝好运。附败就是他们财富的来源。



QUE

America has its issues. However, I would not want to live anywhere else!!

美国有自己的问题,但是,我不想去其他任何地方生活!!



Nope

Anyone who has ever dealt with Indians IN India know this is not a money issue but a ideology within the culture issue. Just because you threw a blank check at their police does not change their flawed social hierarchy system.

和印度人打过交道的人都知道,这不是资金的问题,而是意识形态问题。给印度警察一张空白支票也不能改变他们有缺陷的社会等级制度。



john

Get them on a diet first

先让印度警察节食减肥



Billy

Cops are high school dropouts who were bullied in school and now that they have weapons they think they are untouchable.

印度警察都是高中就辍学的,他们在学校被欺负,现在他们有了武器,认为别人是贱民。



Philpax

Indian police are simply unbelievable.

印度警察简直令人难以置信。



Joe

How is Democracy working out in India ?

皿煮在印度行得通吗?



George

As long as India is against China, doesn't matter what India is doing is OK with US. US will continue to sell all kind of weapons to India with low discounted price. So please praise India, don't blame India, otherwise, your are not politically correct.

只要印度反对中国,不管他们在做什么,美国都可以接受。美国将继续以低折扣的价格向印度出售各种武器。请赞扬印度,不要责备印度,否则你们的政治立场不对。



THECHOSENJEW

Well body deodorant should help a lot

对印度警察而言,身体除臭剂应该很有帮助



s

Glad they dont use choke hold!

很高兴他们没用锁喉那一招!



Jay

What do we need to reform police in US? I am guessing a revolution.

美国警察改革需要什么?我猜是一场革命。
相仿文章
印网友:印度需要多少艘航母
越南文化和中国文化有什么主要的不同
IMF首席经济学家表示:印度需要修正GD
印度单日新增破4万例,印网民:真正开始爆
获警方维护秩序,印度达利特警察得以在婚礼
黑肤色印度人谈自己的生活,印度女网友:真
报道火车脱轨事件,印度记者称被警察殴打:
月船2号,印度将进行发射前最后测试
如果对各国宇航局进行排位,印度ISRO能
印度和巴基斯坦最大的不同之处是什么
拒绝加入RCEP后,印度表示支持与欧盟进
非洲仍然贫穷,为何经济远远领先印度,印网
印度财长:没有比印度更好的投资地了,我们
印度公民以后去巴西,将不需要办理入境签证
美联储:40%的美国人拿不出400美元的
印度女子在拘留期间遭多名警察轮奸
洛克希德·马丁公司提出生产专供印度的F-
一名印度裔美籍警察在德克萨斯州被枪杀
印度女演员因掌掴警察、酒后驾车而被起诉
相同栏目
美国多地现“购枪潮” !民众:越买越恐慌
COVID-19病例飙升 欧股三大指数开
印度轮奸案受害者的哥哥称,警方半夜强行带
印度一名三岁女童因家庭仇恨而被奸杀
22岁"网红"女教师被前
德国之声独家捕获美国17岁少年枪手镜头
男子3次向宾馆一女子房间喷“迷药” 被起
美国观众“火眼金睛”救了女记者一条命
15岁印度女孩遭父亲、爷爷强奸,怀孕后堕
宁夏首条沙漠公路,穿越腾格里沙漠腹地18
TikTok在印度被禁用之后,印度创作者
肺炎疫情:美国抗疫新答卷上的四错与三对
解放报:年底大饥荒 威胁全球 预计1.2
花莲师生畸恋女师与国三男夜奔七星潭野战3
计程车活春宫!短裙女后座「忘情吞吐」 男
中国1000多万考生参加2020年高考
世界最长最宽的多塔斜拉桥 嘉绍跨海大桥全
盗墓贼挖出青铜剑卖2000元 获刑10年
日本火车便当真的好吃?网曝1优点:大胜台

浙ICP备15039925号-2    部分网站可能在中国大陆地区无法访问,请谅解!
隐私提醒:本站使用了Cookie,帮助用户提供更好的服务。