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中国疆域和人口是如何达到如此规模的

来源:  BBSGood社区    时间:2019-03-26 20:00:09   关注:168   转发


How did China get so big in size and population?


中国的疆域和人口是如何达到如此规模的?


 Quora读者的评论:


Jonathan Wilson, I'll try to keep the answer short...


There are many reasons China has become the most populated nation on the planet, and has dominated the #1 position in population for over 2,000 years! A vague summary of China’s history is that it has gone from dynasty to dynasty, different rulers, different monarchs, religion has taken over and subsided. Almost no other country has a more complex but beautiful history as China, which shapes it into the highly militarized nation it is today.


By this knowledge of Chinese history, we know that in 221 BC, most of what is now China was unified and made into one large empire. Since there are so many different geographical features (mountains, valleys, coastal), this makes China easily a self reliable empire. Due to its geography and perfect location for growing crops in large pieces of land, the Chinese would have thought to have more children that they could support and could earn for them later in their lives.


Another possible reason is religion and diversity. China was always a religiously diverse country, ranging from Ancestor worship to Buddhism as well as an ethnically diverse empire from its location.


Geography, abundance of natural resources, and diversity has all added up and has grown immensely, making China’s population #1 in the world


中国之所以会成为世界上人口最多的国家,并在2000多年来一直占据着人口第一的位置,原因有很多!对中国历史的一个笼统概括就是,从一个王朝更替到另一个王朝,统治者不同,帝王不同,宗教一度盛行又归于沉寂。几乎没有哪个国家拥有比中国更加复杂而又美丽的历史,而历史造就了今天这个高度军事化的国家。


了解过中国历史,我们知道,在公元前221年,现今中国的大部分地区统一成了一个庞大的帝国。由于中国拥有如此丰富的地理特征(山川、峡谷、海洋),使得中国很容易成为自给自足的帝国。由于中国的地形地貌和适合在大块土地上种植作物的完美地理位置,中国人愿意生育更多的孩子,他们可以养活这些孩子,长大后还能帮忙赚钱。


另一个可能的原因是宗教和多样性。中国一直是一个宗教多元化的国家,从崇拜祖先到信奉佛教,同时因地而异,还是一个民族多样化的帝国。


地理位置、丰富的自然资源和多样性叠加在一起,使中国的人口规模在世界上位居首位。


 


Ian Malkus, German lived in Malaysia before


In my opinions only


The main reason might be geographic.


Most of high populated countries are in Asia and in India.


Usually not in north or East Europe.


Previously human need foods to live on. In Asian Area, there are good farming or agriculture conditions. Good weather, good temperature and big river for rice etc..


However, compared to Asian area, in Europe, especially north part, the most conditions for farming is not proper. Too long winter and too cold.. even not enough sunshine… etc..


Well, since long years, in Asian area, people did agriculture to get foods. In Western parts, people did more hunting animals etc.. So their main food looked different. And they also improved in different way which fit for them.


For farming and working for this, more people is better. So they tried to have more and more sons.( male is better than female at that time, because male is stronger and better for agriculture which is very hard works.)


Compared to Europe, such Agriculture made people more stable. They did not need to move and move to get foods. They could settle down in an area. But people in Europe moved lots to search for foods.


This is all old history. But this can show why China has big size country and many population. The environment caused this and people should adjust them under this big nature power.


译文来源:三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com/47255.html  译者:Joyceliu


以下只是我个人观点


主要原因可能是地理方面的因素。


大多数人口稠密的国家都处在亚洲和印度。


通常都不会出现在北欧或东欧。


人类要活下来,就得有食物。在亚洲地区,有良好的农业或农业条件。天气好,温度适宜,有宽广的河流灌溉大米等。


然而,与亚洲地区相比,欧洲,特别是北欧,大多数地区都不适合农业。冬天太长太冷…甚至日照也不够…


很长一段时间以来,在亚洲地区,人们从事农业来获取食物。西方国家的人猎杀动物等。所以他们的主食看起来不一样。他们也发展了适合自己的不同之路。


对于农业和务农工作来说,人越多越好。所以他们喜欢儿子越多越好。(当时男性比女性尊贵,因为男性更强壮,更适合农业生产,因为农业是非常辛苦的工作。)


与欧洲相比,这样的农业使人们更加稳定。他们不需要四处迁徙,获得食物。他们可以在一个地区定居下来。但是欧洲人为了寻找食物经常迁徙。


这都是过去的事了。但这可以说明为什么中国幅员辽阔,人口众多。这是环境造成的,人们应该在这种巨大的自然力量下作出调整。


 


Matteo Lepore


China has always had a huge population throughout its history.


Chinese farmland is a very suitable for agriculture thus a perfec habitat for humans.


If you look at the population of China in 1900 it was as big as the US one today.


After WWII and the communist takeover life expectancy rose and the fertility rate remained over 6 children per woman.


Europe doubled its population thanks to the industrial revolution, so did China (it just took more time for it to modernize).


Afterwards the Chinese government introduced the one-child policy and the birth rate fell, but in ’80s thanks to huge economical and social improvements the population had a second boom.


Now the number of children is under the replacement rate, but if the standard of living continue to improve the population should grow to 1 billion and 400 million people before starting declining.


纵观历史,中国一直拥有庞大的人口。


中国的农田非常适合农业生产,是人类的理想栖息地。


如果你看看1900年中国的人口,它和今天的美国人口一样多。


二战后,人均预期寿命上升,生育率保持在每名妇女生育6个孩子以上。


由于工业革命,欧洲人口翻了一番,中国也翻了一番(不过现代化花了更多的时间)。


后来中国实行了独生子女政策,出生率下降,但在80年代,由于经济和社会迅速进步,人口出现了第二次高峰。


现在儿童的数量低于更替率,如果生活水平继续提高,人口应该会增长到14亿,然后才会开始下降。


 


Pavel Astakhov, studied Computer Networking & Financial Management (2003)


When Rome broke up, China never disintegrated for a long time. Therefore, the period of wars was short. And then prosperous Tang.


But that would not be enough.


In Europe, different nations fought among themselves, the Russians generally fought against all the steppe people. This reduced the number. The plague arose in China and gradually acted, as a result, the Chinese did not have the Black Death, they had immunity. Most Europeans did not have it.


In addition, the unity of the nation and the purity of blood were achieved in China.


罗马帝国后,中国统一了很长一段时间。因此,战争持续时间很短。然后进入盛唐时期。


但这并不是全部原因。


在欧洲,国家之间纷争不断,俄国人与西伯利亚各民族作战。这使得人口逐渐减少。鼠疫在中国兴起并逐渐蔓延,结果,中国人没有患上黑死病,他们有了免疫力。大多数欧洲人没有免疫力。


此外,中国实现了民族的统一和血液的纯化


 


Katie Pedro, APAC Regional HR Dirctor at Marvell Semiconductors (2018-present)


A2A. Because of Chinese civilization started with irrigated farming along side yellow river. The geographic and climate made amassing large population a necessity to survive.


1.Yellow river was not a easy water way to tame. It changes course all the time in ancient time, wiping out entire crops farmers rely on to survive the next entire year. Farming was in itself a labor intensive work. Taming a large river requires every family unit to contribute manpower to construct massive dam or river bank. It also requires large population to save whatever savable in event of flood. When man was summoned to joined the force for construction, families need even more man at home to take care of the filed.


2.Farming requires long term planning. The time between seeding to harvesting takes seasons to complete. The next harvest will be seasons away. So protection of the crops in the fileds and food reserves from raiding are important. Therefore form army to defend the land is important. Again, army needs people, and more people to farm in order to supply the army.


3.To support large size of army, construction, administration body, other than tie people in farming, to maintain population growth was critical for the family, the clan and the society to survive. That's the reason China developed the culture emphasizing on reproduction. Why is not having an heir is the biggest sin to commit to the family even the clan? Because it was indeed threatening the survive of the family/clan.


It is no longer the case for modern China. Trading industry now is well regarded, unlike in ancient China trading was the lowest ranked class. But the population base is already very very large.


由于中华文明的发源于黄河流域的灌溉农业。地理和气候使得聚集大量人口成为生存的必要条件。


1.黄河不是一条容易驯服的河流。在古代,它一直在改变方向,淹没了农民赖以生存的农作物。农业本身就是一项劳动密集型的工作。驯服一条大河需要每一个家庭单位贡献人力来建造巨大的水坝或河岸。还需要大量的人口在洪水泛滥时抢救一切能抢救的物资。当男人被征召加入部队建设时,百姓家里就需要更多的男人照顾田地。


2.农业需要长期规划。播种到收获之间的时间需要几个季节。下一个收获季节又是几个季节以后的事。因此,保护田地里的作物和粮食储备不受盗抢是很重要的。因此,组织军队保卫土地是很重要的。军队需要人,而为了供养军队,又需要更多的人来种地。


3.为了供养庞大的军队、建设、行政机构,除了让百姓世代务农之外,保持人口增长对家庭、宗族和社会的生存至关重要。这就是为什么中国的文化重视子嗣延绵。为什么没有后人是对家庭甚至家族犯下的最大罪行?因为这确实威胁到家庭、宗族的生存。


现代中国已经不再是这番景象了。现在的商贸业地位很高,不像古代中国时排在末位了。但是中国的人口基数已经非常非常庞大了。


 


Golightly Holly


First, i need to tell you, my view is of strong personal emotion. So, like it or not. Before that, the WWII cost 20 million Chinese life. Nearly a quarter of the whole population was off on the vast land. So the CPC regime was desperate, for OMG, they were shot of slaves. So Mao Zedong called up women to give birth and praise those who give many birth. Then there was a hit word “hero mother”, which means mother who gave birth to four, five or seven, or more. And time past, now , the population booms!


首先,我需要告诉你,我的观点带有强烈的个人情感。所以喜不喜欢随便你了。二战夺去了2000万中国人的生命。将近四分之一的人口从这片辽阔的土地上消失。因此,毛主席号召妇女多生育,表彰那些生育多个孩子的妇女。当时还有一个很火的词“英雄母亲”,指代那些生了4个、5个、7个或更多孩子的母亲。时间流逝,现在,中国的人口进入鼎盛时期!


 


Mars Whay


Agriculture society. In southern China, the crops which produces rice can harvest twice in a year. Manpower is a main factor of productivity. Head counts determine manpower.. Unlike society which gathers food by fishing, gathering, hunting …


So is India, Bangladesh.


农业社会。在中国南方,水稻作物一年可以收成两季。人力是生产力的主要因素。人口数量决定了劳动力,跟那些依赖捕鱼、采集、狩猎来获取食物的社会不一样……


印度和孟加拉国也是如此。


 


Lai Cheok-Minh, Ordinary high school student in Hong Kong


Similar to India, Chinese land is simply just perfect for civilization. You have countless fertile plains and rivers everywhere which means easy production of food. The more food, the more people.


与印度相似,中国的土地是文明发展的完美之地。中国有无数肥沃的平原和河流,这意味着生产食物轻而易举。食物越多,人就越多。


 


Kumar Lang, HungryLead Founder (2011-present)


Agricultural society tend to grow faster than nomadic. China was blessed with fertile land, minimal natural disasters and importance of son, so family with daughter will keep on having kids till they have a son, plus good diet (long life) and low infant mortality.


农业社会往往比游牧社会发展得更快。中国土地肥沃,自然灾害少,重男轻女,所以有女儿的家庭会继续生孩子,一直生到儿子为止,再加上良好的饮食结构(长寿)和较低的婴儿死亡率。


 


Taimoor Khan, M.B.B.S from Capital Medical University


Well the answer is very simple by reproducing lols


呃,答案很简单,生孩子呗


 


Michael Cowan, Program Assistant at Northwest Florida State College (2018-present)


I think it's more likely that China and India had predominantly lower historic death rates compared to the rest of the world during most of the pre-industrial era of history rather than proportionately higher birth rates as the leading factor.


我认为更有可能的是,与世界其他国家相比,中国和印度在工业化之前的很长一段历史时期内,死亡率明显较低,这比出生率较高更为重要。


 


Maharshi Choudhury, Programmer at Accenture


China historically, had the world's largest population. Rarely it had been No 2 in world population. So by virue of that China is the world's largest population


从历史上看,中国一直是世界上人口最多的国家。它基本上没有在世界人口中跌到过第二名的位置。所以中国现在是世界上人口最多的国家。


 


John Rawdon, former Retired


I can write bibles full of reasons. But it is simple fact! People look forward to how they need to equip themselves in old age. There are two ways. Either be very wealthy or, alternatively, have enough family to care for you in old age.


我可以列出无数理由。但这是一个简单的事实!人们会想,老了怎么办。有两种方法。要么你非常富有,要么有足够的家人来照顾你的晚年。


 


Quora User, Primary School in the big BJ


Well…. my mind is telling me not to write this but my fingers are doing it anyway.


Lots, and lots, and lots, and lots of unprotected sex. I mean seriously, 1.3 billion people?


好....我的理智告诉我不要回答这个问题,但我的手指还是停不下来。


原因就是无数,无数,无数,无数,无数无保护措施的性行为。我是认真的,13亿人是开玩笑的么?


1.jpg 


So lots of ripe age sex. If the survey is telling the truth, as I don’t think 15, 16 and 17 year old respondents would dare admit so in China.


所以适龄性行为非常多。如果这个调查结果是真的,我认为15、16和17岁的中国受访者只是不敢承认罢了。


 


Quora User


According to me it is also based on the area . For example In Australia child births will be less it's because of their geographical area .It is not linked with sex . It's based on weather and climate r area .This is my answer to this particular question


在我看来,这跟地理位置有关。例如,在澳大利亚,由于地理位置的原因,孩子的出生率比较低。这跟性行为无关,而是基于这个地区的天气和气候。这是我对这个问题的回答。


 


Max Fong, Ph.D. Couple and Family Therapy


Chinese do not sexually active compared with men in The Middle East, but China had many long and stable periods in history as well as other factors.


In the first place, China once had many dynasties, some of them lasting more than 200 years. Therefore, a safe and stable environment is suitable for human beings to reproduce.


与中东地区的男性相比,中国人对性并不热衷,但中国在历史上有过很多漫长而稳定的时期,也有其他因素。


首先,中国曾经有许多朝代,有些朝代持续了200多年。因此,安全稳定的环境有利于人类的繁衍。


Secondly, China was an agricultural society for thousands years. Manpower was valuable in that situation, so more children meaned affluence in food. Meanwhile, emperors or loaders also encouraged the folks to have more children for the sake of extending the armies, especially male children. It is not a surprise that emperors promoted the notion that the last thing to show filial piety is to be DINK.


In Han Dynasty(202B.C.-220B.C.) , the population was about 60 million. In Qing Dynasty(1636 A.C.-1912 A.C.), the population achieved 350 million.


Also there were other factors, such as the rice cultivation and the mature system of traditional Chinese Medicine.


Why is China so big?


A large army helped the emperors and loaders to conquer the surroundings. And a complete, catching, and deep-rooted culture kept all parts together. Although China has 56 ethnics, we look like similar in many ways.


其次,中国几千年来一直是一个农业社会。在那种情况下,人力是很宝贵的,所以孩子越多就意味着食物越充足。同时,皇帝也鼓励人们多生孩子,特别是男性儿童来扩大军队。皇帝们宣扬“不孝有三,无后为大”,这并不奇怪。


汉代(公元前202年-220年)时中国的人口约为6000万。清朝(公元1636年-1912年)时人口达到3.5亿。


此外,还有一些其他因素,如水稻种植以及体系成熟的传统中医。


为什么中国疆域这么辽阔?


庞大的军队帮助皇帝征服周边领土。一种完整的、有感染力的、根深蒂固的文化把所有地区联系在一起。虽然中国有56个民族,但我们在很多方面都很相似。


 


Chris Hills, studied Brexit, European Union, Trade, Politics, Economy


China is the most populous nation on earth. The figures are so large that they are hard to take in. At 1,382 million (2016 estimate) this is 19% of the world population of 7,349 million, or in other words one person in every five lives in China. No country has ever ruled so many people. China's population is four times the population of the U.S. or double the entire population of Europe (2016 figures). Population density is uneven: 70% of people live in the Eastern third; while the extensive deserts and mountains covering half of the area has only about 12% of the population.


However it may be a surprise to know that this is not a modern phenomenon, two thousand years ago the whole population of the vast Roman empire was comparable to that of China.


中国是地球上人口最多的国家。这些数字是如此之大,很难缩减。13.82亿(2016年的估量),是世界人口73.49亿的19%,换句话说,每五个人,就有一人住在中国。从来没有哪个国家拥有过如此庞大的人口。中国人口是美国人口的四倍,是欧洲总人口的两倍(2016年的数据)。人口密度不均衡:70%的人口居住在占据三分之一国土的东部地区;而占据了一半国土面积的广阔沙漠和山脉地区,只有大约12%的人口。


不过令人惊讶的是,这并不是一种现代现象,两千年前,辽阔的罗马帝国的人口总量就曾与中国相当。


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Population growth over history


Chinese civilization began along the Yellow River at about the same as those of Egypt and Mesopotamia. Initially people settled in the immediate vicinity of the valley.


The first accurate population statistic comes from as long as go as 2CE in the Han dynasty. It gives the population as 57.7 millions in 12.4 million households. Later in 140CE the figure had decreased to 48 million people in 9.5 million households - probably due to incursions by northern nomads. Meanwhile the whole Roman Empire of Emperor Augustus  [27BCE-14CE] had between 70 and 90 million people.


At this time most people still lived along the Yellow River valley (Shaanxi, Shanxi, Henan, Shandong) but also the remote upper stretches of the Yangzi in Sichuan. There were fewer people in the lower Yangzi which is now the most densely populated part of China.


人口增长伴随着历史发展


中国文明发源于黄河沿岸,与埃及和美索不达米亚文明大致相同。最初,人们就定居在山谷附近。


准确的人口统计数据最早出现在公元2世纪的汉代。家庭户数1240万个,人口5770万。后来在公元140年,这个数字下降到家庭户数950万,人口4800万——可能是由于北方游牧民族的入侵导致。与此同时整个罗马帝国的皇帝奥古斯都(公元前27年到公元14年)有7000至9000万人。


那时,大多数人仍然生活在黄河流域(陕西、山西、河南、山东)沿线,以及四川长江上游的偏远地区。长江下游人口较少,但长江下游现在已成为中国人口最密集的地区。


4.jpg 


Chinese New Year


Culture


China's main holiday is the Spring Festival held in late January or early February. It is a very busy time and the public holiday lasts a whole week. It is a time to go back to your family home and celebrate the new year together with numerous traditions and festive food.


During the Han dynasty it is estimated that the urban (town) population was between 10 and 20%. The capital city of Chang'an, Shaanxihad 80,000 houses with 246,200 people, the city of Luoyang, Henan 52,839 houses with 195,504 people and Chengdu, Sichuan had 76,256 houses with 282,147 people.


After the Han came the turmoil and wars of the Three Kingdoms period when the population came down to 25 million by 280CE, although it may have been as low as 16 million (an apparent loss of 30 million).


中国新年


文化


中国最重要的节日是春节,时间一般在1月底或2月初。春节是一段非常忙碌的时间,公众假期会持续一周。人们会在这段时间回老家,跟亲友欢聚一堂,用许多传统习俗和节日美食来庆祝新年。


据估计,在汉代,城市(镇)人口在10%到20%之间。首都陕西长安有 80000所房屋,人口246200;河南洛阳城有52839间房屋,人口195504;四川成都有76256间房屋,人口282147。


汉朝之后是战乱动荡的三国时期,到公元280年,人口下降到2500万,实际上有可能仅剩1600万(明显减少了3000万)。


When the Tang dynasty re-unified China the population rapidly climbed to 52.8 million (754CE). The An Lushan rebellion of 766CE reversed this quickly down to 17 million. The following Song dynasty was another period of prosperity that brought another sharp increase to about 100 million followed by the Mongol invasion which led to a steep decline. By the Southern Song dynasty the majority of people were in southern China (as defined by south of the Huai River).


By the Yuan dynasty it was 58 million - but only counting those taxed; it then more than doubled to about 150 million in the late Ming. This trend continued into the Qing, with expanded territory under Emperor Qianlong, the population grew rapidly to 243 million in 1778 and about 400 million in 1840. In 1820 China's population of 381 million dwarfed that of the whole of western Europe of only 122 million.


The devastating effect of warfare is evident in these population figures. It is estimated that one in three (about 30 million) died in the Mongol invasion that defeated the Song (1279). In the Manchu conquest (1644) 16% died (about 25 million). In the Taiping Rebellion (1865) about 50 million died. By comparison the more recent Japanese occupation (1928-37) 5 million and...seem relatively low. Comparison of these figures with total dead of two World Wars - 80 million demonstrates how high they are.. With a keen knowledge of history the Chinese people equate division and conflict with traumatic death tolls. Historians believe that over-population caused famines which in turn contributed to these conflicts. This is particularly true of the Qing dynasty when over a hundred years the population doubled to 400 million and the Taiping Rebellion resulted.


唐朝统一中国后,人口迅速攀升至5280万(公元754年)。公元766年的安禄山起义很快将这一数字骤降至1700万。接下来的宋朝是又一个繁盛时期,人口激增至约1亿,随后蒙古入侵,导致人口急剧下降。到南宋时,大多数人居住在中国南方(淮河以南)。


到了元朝,人口达到了5800万——但只算课税人口;到了明末,这个数字翻了一倍多,达到了1.5亿。这种增长趋势一直延续到清朝,乾隆皇帝统治下的领土不断扩张,人口迅速增长,1778年达到2.43亿,1840年达到4亿左右。1820年,中国有3.81亿人口,远远超过西欧的1.22亿。


战争的毁灭性效果在人口数据中是非常明显的。据估计,三分之一(约3000万)的人口死于蒙古人的入侵,蒙古入侵推翻了宋朝(1279年)。在满清入关(1644年)时,死亡了16%的人口(约2500万人)。在1865年的太平天国运动中,大约有5000万人死亡。相比之下,距离现在最近的日军侵略(1928- 1937)时期人口减少了500万。将这些数字与两次世界大战的总死亡人数(8000万人)进行比较,可以看出死亡人数到底有多少。因为对历史有了深刻的理解,中国人把分裂和冲突视同于死亡。历史学家认为人口过剩导致了饥荒,而饥荒反过来又加剧了这些冲突。清朝的情况尤其如此,100多年来,人口翻了一番,达到4亿,然后爆发了太平天国运动。


Malthus


It was the British cleric and scholar the Reverend Thomas Malthus 1766-1834 who made a significant contribution to the study of population dynamics in his study ‘An Essay on the Principle of Population’ (1798-1826). He held the view that population has a natural tendency to forever increase until it is naturally controlled by famine, disease or warfare. Over-crowding leads to competition which trigger wars for access to a limited to supply of food and this decreases the population. Over-crowding also gives easier transmission of infectious diseases. So, before modern times the population of a region had a natural limit that could not be exceeded because one of the controlling influences would cause it to decline. Cycles of increase and decrease are seen as natural processes not chance happenings. This analysis is evident in China, periods of steady population growth were followed by famine that fueled Civil War. The Taiping Rebellion is the classic example of this.


It is only in modern times when intensive agriculture and free trade have allowed nations to import food in bulk that the limit has been raised. A dramatic illustration of this is that the availability of potatoes in Europe allowed the population to quickly double.


马尔萨斯


英国神职人员和学者托马斯·马尔萨斯(1766-1834)牧师在他的《人口原则论文》(1798-1826)中对人口动态发展的研究做出了重要贡献。他认为人口有一种自然的增长趋势,直至被饥荒、疾病或战争所影响。过度拥挤导致竞争,从而引发争夺有限食物的战争,从而减少人口。过度拥挤也使传染病更容易传播。因此,在近代以前,每个地区的人口都有一个不能超越的自然限度,因为某个控制因素一触发就会导致人口下降。人口增多和降低的周期是一个自然的过程,不是偶然发生的。这在中国体现得很明显,在人口稳定增长之后,就爆发了饥荒,进而发生内战。太平天国起义就是典型的例子。


只有在集约农业和自由贸易使得各国得以大量进口粮食的现代,这一极限才得以提高。一个极富戏剧性的例子就是,欧洲得到了马铃薯供应后,人口迅速地增加了一倍。


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