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为何印度科技落后其他国家,美国网友:印度人已经征服了硅谷

来源:  BBSGood社区    时间:2019-03-30 10:00:07   关注:220   转发


Why does India lag behind in technology?


为什么印度在科技领域落后于其他国家?


印度办公室


 Quora读者的评论:


Carl Elliott


Indian people are extremely clever and are prepared to study, but the emphasis is always on money. I've never met so many people who are so focused on money.


If the focus was curiosity and creativity, then India has the brains to make huge advancements.


During travels around India, many people tell me about Indian religion and culture and food etc, but they never ask me about my life at home. If I offer a different view on culture based on my way of life at home, I am told that the Indian way is better. I think people could open their minds a little, ask more questions about the world outside of what they know,question they have been told all of their lives and they may find ways to push forwards.


印度人非常聪明,愿意学习,但他们的重点总是放在钱上。我从未见过这么多人把钱看得那么重。


如果关注的焦点是好奇心和创造力,那么印度绝对有能力取得巨大的进步。


印度旅行期间,很多人跟我介绍印度的宗教、文化和食物等,但他们从来没有问过我在家里的生活是什么样的。如果我根据自己国内的生活方式对文化提出不同的看法,他们就会说印度的方式更好。我觉得人们可以敞开心扉,多了解一些他们不知道的世界,质疑他们从小被告知的事,他们也许就能找到前进的道路。


 


Mira Zaslove, American, who has been to Delhi 8 times as a kid


The biggest impediment to innovation and technological creation in India is largely political and cultural. India still struggles with corruption, bureaucracy, inequality, poverty, and lack of infrastructure. But considering that India just gained independence within the last 67 years, things have already come a long way. India's economy is growing. If India is able to continue to improve her political, economic, and cultural environment, I believe she will be able to leverage her knowledge and people to really take off.


印度创新和技术创新的最大障碍主要是政治和文化。印度仍然在与腐败、官僚主义、不平等、贫困和基础设施匮乏作斗争。但是考虑到印度在67年前刚刚获得独立,相比彼时已经取得了很大的进展。印度经济正在增长。如果印度能够继续改善她的政治、经济和文化环境,我相信她将能够凭借智慧和人才真正起飞。


译文来源:三泰虎 http://www.santaihu.com/47278.html   译者:Joyceliu


From an American's perspective:


I work in an engineering group at a Fortune 50 Silicon Valley tech firm. The Director, VP, and GM of the IT department are all Indian. Most of their spouses, are also Indians in technology. Indian consultants from WiPro, Infosys, Tata Consulting, and other contracting groups have replaced full time local employees.


Walk into any IT department of almost any major tech firm, and you will see more Indians than any other immigrant population. You will often find more Indians than Americas. Indians have conquered Silicon Valley.


So, if you ask me: Indians ARE creating technology. The CEO of Microsoft (Satya Nadella), the co-founder of Sun Microsystems and one of the most successful VCs (Vinod Khosla) are Indian. Rajen Sheth, the founder of Google Apps, is Indian.


Yes, it is true that many of these individuals are Americans with Indian heritage. However, a large majority of them are also immigrants. I think it is meaningful, because I do not see this type of technological dominance with other ethnic groups.


从美国人的角度来看:


我在一家财富50强硅谷科技公司的工程团队工作。IT部门的主管、副总裁和总经理都是印度人。他们的配偶大多也是印度科技界人士。来自WiPro、印孚瑟斯、塔塔咨询和其他承包集团的印度咨询公司已经取代了当地员工。


走进任何一家大型科技公司的IT部门,你会发现印度人比其他移民都要多。很多时候,印度人比美洲人都还要多。印度人已经征服了硅谷。


所以,如果你问我:我会说印度人正在创造科技。微软首席执行官萨蒂亚•纳德拉、太阳微系统公司联合创始人以及最成功的风投公司之一维诺德•科斯拉都是印度人。谷歌Apps的创始人Rajen Sheth也是印度人。


是的,这些人中有许多人是有印度血统的美国人,这是事实。然而,他们中的大多数也是移民。我认为这也是有意义的,因为我没有看到其他种族群体能在科技领域占据主导地位。


Indians are also beginning to leverage their success abroad and are bringing it back to India. According to Jaideep Prabhu, a professor at Cambridge Judge Business School, “The term brain drain is misleading because really we are in an era of brain circulation.”


Prabhu argues that the Surprising Secret of India’s Success Could Be its Brain Drain. He studied 116 Indian companies, and found:


“Leaders who had studied and worked abroad had a competitive advantage. This international edge helped them expand rapidly in developed markets, despite a lack of experience peddling their products and services in the West.”


The data suggests that pharmaceutical company Ranbaxy Laboratories, software and outsourcing company Infosys, refining company Reliance Industries, the Mahindra Group and India’s largest conglomerate the Tata group, all benefited from having executives who had spent time studying or working overseas.


印度人也开始利用他们在海外取得的成功,并将其引流回印度。剑桥大学贾奇商学院教授贾伊迪普•普拉布表示:“人才流失这个词具有误导性,因为我们正处在人才流动的时代。”


普拉布认为,印度成功的惊人秘诀可能正是人才流失。他研究了116家印度公司,发现:


“在国外学习和工作过的领导者具有竞争优势。这种国际优势帮助他们在发达市场迅速扩张,尽管他们缺乏在西方推销产品和服务的经验。”


数据显示,制药公司兰伯西实验室、软件和外包公司印孚瑟斯、炼油公司信实工业、马欣德拉集团和印度最大企业集团塔塔集团的高管都曾在海外学习或工作,这些企业从中受益颇多。


These companies were able to survive increased competition in their home market and then thrive even in the most-competitive developed markets because their chiefs had taken a crash course in global capitalism by honing their skills in the United States and elsewhere."


(For more: see the Surprising Secret of India’s Success Could Be its Brain Drain)


As the new generation graduating from IITs and IIMs, continue to innovate and work in India, we will see more and more technology and companies created in India. It's already beginning to happen.


The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) also has had a record of launching highly successful and technologically advanced missions.


这些公司能够在国内市场日益激烈的竞争中生存下来,然后甚至在竞争最激烈的发达市场中茁壮成长,正是因为他们的主管们通过在美国和其他地区磨练了一身技能,参加了全球资本主义的速成班。”


(更多信息:印度成功的惊人秘诀可能正是人才流失)


随着印度理工学院和印度管理学院的新一代毕业生继续在印度创新和工作,我们将看到越来越多的技术和公司诞生在印度。这种趋势已经开始了。


印度空间研究组织(ISRO)也有发射极其成功和高科技水平任务的记录。


Yet, it will not be easy, and the political task is enormous. Comparing India to Germany, Japan, and the United States is difficult. Germany has a population of around 80 Million, Japan around 130 Million, the US around 318 Million. And India has 1.25 Billion.


China has a larger population than India, and Singapore is a newer state. However, both of these countries are ruled by largely authoritarian governments. 


India is not only highly populated, there is tremendous diversity in India. Indians speak different languages, come from different castes, and have different religions. And the country is a democracy.


If economic and political reform succeeds, and India is able to create an inclusive and pro-business environment, we will see India truly tap its technological and entrepreneurial potential.


然而,这并非易事,政治任务艰巨。把印度和德国、日本和美国进行比较难度很高。德国人口约8000万,日本约1.3亿,美国约3.18亿,而印度有12.5亿。


中国人口比印度多,新加坡是一个比较年轻的国家。


印度不仅人口众多,而且有着巨大的多样性。印度人说不同的语言,来自不同的种姓,信仰不同的宗教。这个国家是一个皿煮的国家。


如果经济和政治改革取得成功,印度能够创造一个包容和亲商的环境,那么我们会见证印度真正发挥其技术和创业潜力。


 


Anonymous


Because most people in India are woefully stupid. Even the educated ones.


I see many answers talking about corruption, lack of infrastructure, etc. No one talks about the human capital.


I know that people all over the world praise Indians as being very intelligent. That perception has been created due to a very small percentage of people who do well abroad. They are the cream who got the opportunity to showcase their talents worldwide. But, take a look at the average Indian. The situation is deplorable.


He doesn't know his own history or geography for starters. If you ask him about the world in general, you will be banging your head on a wall. Most are pretentious and insecure. If you try to educate them about realities, they grow pigheaded and violent. This might be the situation in other countries, too. But, we have such a large population that the problem is magnified a million times. An industry body, NASSCOM, has stated that 75% of Indian engineers are unemployable. There goes the myth about Indian engineers out the door.


People all over the country vote on the basis of caste and creed and then, they complain about the government not doing enough. However, this doesn't change the fact that they do the same thing in the next elections and hope for the best. The endless cycle of whining continues.


因为大多数印度人都很愚蠢。即便是受过教育的人也一样。


我看到很多答案提到了腐败、基础设施匮乏等问题。但还没有人讨论人力资本。


我知道全世界的人都称赞印度人非常聪明。这种看法是因为国外表现出色的印度人所占的比例非常小。他们是精英,有机会在全世界展示他们的才华。但是,看看普通的印度人。情况很令人唏嘘。


他对自己的历史和地理一无所知。如果你问他有关这个世界的问题,你会想撞墙的。大多数人自命不凡,缺乏安全感。如果你试图让他们了解现实,他们会变得非常顽固和暴力。其他国家的情况也可能如此。但是,我们的人口那么多,这个问题就被放大了一百万倍。印度国家软件和服务公司协会表示,75%的印度工程师失业了。关于印度工程师的神话已经破灭。


印度民众根据种姓和信仰投票,然后抱怨政府不给力。但这并没有改变这样一个事实:他们在下次选举中还是会做同样的事情,并抱着最好的希望。然后继续无休止的抱怨。


The political parties also know that the people will never come out of their feudal mindset and opt for a meritocracy. So, they encourage caste politics as it is easier to answer questions on caste than actual issues.


Indians have a huge number of degrees without actually knowing anything about the subject. Go figure.


We have things like religious extremism, regionalism, Naxalism, etc. All these are started by some stupid people who manage to convince a larger majority of even stupider people to follow their lead. Eventually, all these become power grabbing movements. Still going on.


Recently, we had this cow protection fiasco. It's still going on. Less said the better.


Indians love money. Being poverty stricken for so long has made most everyone money minded. Even I am to some extent. But, here, money is the primary motivation. If janitors start earning seven or eight figures, the whole of India will rush to become janitors. Colleges for janitor training will open up. Coaching centers for getting into those colleges will open up. In short, a whole ecosystem will be spawned in the quest to make janitors.


The environment people grow up in is the biggest factor in corruption, I think. After being taught every step of the way that money is the be all and end all, hoarding becomes the only reasonable mindset. Besides, honest people are regularly shot for not taking bribes.


The people themselves are the biggest reason for the laggard that is India. Most are reactionary and have not an iota of reason.


Going anonymous for obvious reasons.


各个政党也知道,人民永远不会走出封建思想的禁锢,任人唯贤。因此,他们鼓励种姓政治,因为种姓问题比实际问题更容易解决。


印度人有很多学位,但对这门学科一无所知。好好想想吧。


我们有宗教极端主义,地区主义,纳萨尔主义等等。所有这些都是由一些愚蠢的人建立的,他们设法说服大多数甚至更愚蠢的人追随他们。最后,这些都变成了夺权运动。现在这种情况仍在继续。


最近,我们在保护奶牛方面遭遇了惨败。事情还在继续。少说为妙。


印度人爱钱。长期贫困使大多数人都想赚钱。在某种程度上我也是如此。但是,在印度,金钱是最大的动机。如果看门人的收入能达到七、八位数,整个印度都会挤破头来当看门人,会开办看门人培训学院,开办培训中心帮大家进入这些大学。简而言之,在培养看门人的过程中,会催生出一个完整的生态链系统。


我认为,人们成长的环境是腐败的最大因素。印度人被灌输了金钱就是一切的观念。另外,诚实正直的人还常常因为不收受贿赂而遭殃。


印度落后的最大原因是人民。大多数人都反对改革,毫无理性可言。


我选择匿名的原因显而易见。


 


Sahashranshu Maurya, works at IIT Kharagpur AUV Team


One of the most impressive argument I have heard in favor of the question talks about the role of LANGUAGE in research.


A language is not just a medium of communication but a way of life.


Imagine 2 countries. India and US. India is far more populous than US and yet produces far less overall research output than, perhaps, many institutions in developed nations. Why?


A child born and brought up in an Indian town learns 5 hours of English (highly optimistic number) in classroom. His way of life is NOT defined by English. As a matter of fact he cannot connect to the culture described in the English textbooks because it’s altogether a superior ALIEN world for him (since we tend to emphasize on the importance of English and how it’s a necessity to sustain a better life). But deep down, that child feels more connected with his friends and family by his mother tongue which he uses for rest of his day. However, that feeling is suppressed with the inferiority complex he has developed over the years.


Comparatively, a child born in US enjoys the privilege of living and speaking English as his mother tongue and the world described in the textbooks is very much of his own. It’s his heritage and subconsciously, maybe, he is able to better connect with that world than the Indian child (who probably has difficulty in understanding that alien world concepts).


我听到过的关于这个问题的最令人印象深刻的论点之一是语言在研究中的作用。


语言不仅仅是沟通的媒介,更是一种生活方式。


比如有两个国家:印度和美国。印度人口远多于美国,但总体研究产出却远低于发达国家的许多机构。为什么?


一个在印度小镇出生并长大的孩子在课堂上学习了5个小时的英语(非常乐观的数字)。他的生活方式不是由英语决定的。事实上,他无法与英语教科书中描述的文化联系起来,因为对他来说,这完全是一个优越的陌生世界(因为我们总是强调英语的重要性,英语是维持更好的生活的必要条件)。但在内心深处,孩子会觉得自己与朋友和家人的联系更紧密,因为他每天使用的都是母语。然而,这种感觉被他多年来形成的自卑感所压抑。


相比之下,在美国出生的孩子享有以英语为母语生活和说话的特权,教科书中描述的世界很大程度上都是跟他切身相关的。这是他与生俱来的东西,也许在潜意识里,他能比印度孩子更好地与那个世界建立起联系(印度孩子可能难以理解那个陌生的世界的概念)。


Most of the worldwide researches are conducted in ENGLISH. Imagine a mediocre child from a small town in India pursuing research versus a mediocre kid in US. Picking up a research article and reading it is a 3 way more difficult process for the Indian kid because,


1.He needs to use his “5 hours a day training” of English to understand the meaning of sentences, versus someone, with native tongue as English. In India, only 10% of the people are capable of that (125 million).


2.He now needs to understand the technical English concepts of the subject. An English speaker in the same field of study might have picked up a lot more technical concepts and remembers them over time, compared to his Indian counterpart because of the native tongue advantage. Compound this over several years of education. The number of people capable of understanding technical English in India are literally in Ashes.


3.And finally, overcoming the subconscious feeling of running away from something you don’t understand (alien world). Of course, it is harder for everyone to maintain consistency when they are on a new journey but it would be even harder for someone who don’t understand English expressions, to read technical English papers.


全球大多数的研究都是用英语进行的。想象一下,一个来自印度小镇的平庸的孩子在做研究,一个美国的孩子也在做研究。拿起研究论文阅读对印度孩子来说就存在3个困难的点,因为,


1.他需要“每天进行5小时的英语训练”来理解句子的意思,而别人就是以英语为母语。在印度,只有10%的人能做到这一点(也就是1.25亿)。


2.他现在需要理解这门学科的专业英语。与印度人相比,在同一领域中,精通英语的人因为母语优势,可能会吸收更多的技术概念,并随着时间的推移记住它们。在印度,懂技术英语的人简直少得可怜。


3.最后,还要克服避开你不理解的东西(外星世界)的潜意识。对于一个不懂英语表达的人来说,阅读技术性的英语论文就更困难了。


It is natural for people to have their approach practical when they are putting so much hard work into anything. Be it the case of research. It might not be driven by passion anymore. Compounded with the Indian practicalities of sustaining a life, job etc, the number of people from a common mediocre Indian suburb who break the barriers to research a WHOLE NEW TECHNOLOGY is literally one in infinite. People mostly pursue cliché areas of researches which have matured enough over the time (in top institutions around the world) so as to have higher success rate then to, try something new, put effort and fail altogether. This feeling “if they haven’t done it, how can we think of doing it?” stems from that culture of English superiority compounded with success rates in the past.


Most developed countries, other than English, such as China, Japan, Russia etc., give a great deal of importance to their native language. For a country like India with 22 different languages, 13 different scripts and 720 dialects, things are a little more interesting than usual.


Not only government but anyone would be willing to invest in something which shows results. For instance IT sector, where employees can gain expertise with experience and practice, research requires constant new learnings and creative thinking process. Role of language stays at the very core of learning, creativity, attitude and culture therefore, it influences everything in the background.


当人们在任何事情上投入了许多努力时,他们的方法自然会变得实用。不管是不是研究领域。它可能不再是由激情驱动的。再加上印度维持生活、工作等的现实状况,一个平庸的印度乡下人能攻破全新科技的研究壁垒,这样的人绝对是万里挑一的。人们大多愿意进入成熟的研究领域,随着时间的推进这些领域已经足够成熟(在世界各地的顶尖机构中),从而能获得比尝试新领域,不断投入却最终失败更高的成功率。这种“如果他们没有做到,我们怎么能想到做到呢?”的感觉就源于英语优越文化与历史成功率的结合。


除英语外,大多数发达国家如中国、日本、俄罗斯等,都非常重视本国语言。对于印度这样一个拥有22种不同语言、13种文字和720种方言的国家来说,一切都比寻常国家要来的复杂。


不仅是政府,任何人都愿意为能出成果的地方投入资本。例如,IT业的员工可以获得经验和实践方面的专业知识,研究需要不断的新知识和创造性的思维过程。语言一直是学习、创造、态度和文化的核心,因此,它影响着一切。


 


Anonymous


Originally Answered: Why does India lag behind Israel in technology?


Not enough investment (time, resources and money) by all parties concerned, apathy among those in power are just some of the reasons. The technology sector depends to a great extent on good quality technical research. This is lacking in India for very good reasons which I will discuss in brief. Below I talk about just one sector (Integrated Circuit Design sector) to show you the true extent of the problem.


I recently had this very interesting conversation with a university professor in the USA about research to production timelines. Let us look at an example to help us understand the problem. Take integrated circuits used in processors and memory devices. The scaling trend is that the technology node (size of each transistor in these circuits) halves every two years. And the particular technology node that is under research now will go into production 5 to 6 years from now.


Much of the top notch research in this area is heavily concentrated in the United States. So when it goes into production, the design and development jobs will stay in the United States. And the mind numbing, boring IT work is outsourced. So Indian Universities will invest even lesser in research on the future trends because the incentive to do so is very less in the long term because the good jobs (design and development) are anyway not coming to India. So to summarize:


最初的问题是:为什么印度技术落后以色列?


由于各方投入(时间、资源和金钱)不足,当权者的不关心不在乎也只是部分原因。科技领域在很大程度上依赖于高质量的技术研究。这在印度是缺失的,理由很多,我来简要地讨论一下。下面我只谈一个行业(集成电路设计行业)来说明问题的真正程度。


最近,我和美国的一位大学教授进行了一次非常有趣的谈话,内容是关于从研究到生产的时间表。让我们看一个例子来帮助我们理解这个问题。以处理器和存储设备中使用的集成电路为例。微小化是技术难点(这些电路中每个晶体管的尺寸)每两年缩小一半。目前正在研究的技术将在5到6年后投入生产。


这一领域的许多顶尖研究主要集中在美国。所以当它投入生产时,设计和开发工作都将留在美国。无聊的IT工作被外包了出去。因此,印度大学对未来趋势的研究投入将更少,因为从长远来看,这么做的动机非常小,好的工作(设计和开发)不会流到印度来。所以总结一下:


Bad technical research in the past ---> No major work / jobs in the high technology sector coming to India ---> Therefore no investment for research on future trends in that sector ---> Pattern continues.


So you see, it is a vicious cycle that keeps us bogged down as far as the high technology industry is concerned. To put things in perspective, some of the best Electrical Engineering departments in India are stuck teaching the 600 micrometer technology node which was a 1995 or so standard! Most universities in the USA are already teaching the 32 nanometer or even better the 22 nanometer technology already! Now that is very bad and also tells us why we are so seriously lacking in attracting better investment in the technology sector.


过去糟糕的科学研究—>印度缺少高技术领域的重要工作/职位—>因此没有对该领域未来趋势研究的投入—>模恶性循环。


所以你看,就高科技产业而言这是一个恶性循环,让我们陷入困境。从长远来看,印度一些最好的电气工程系都在还在教授600微米技术节点,这可是1995年左右的水平!美国大多数大学已经在教授32纳米甚至更高的22纳米技术了!这非常糟糕,也告诉了我们为什么没法在技术领域吸引更好的投资。


 


Gaurav Sharma, Research Intern at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (2017-present)


India certainly lag behinds in technology and there are key reasons behind it, technology require resources, market, strong economy, political will, entrepreneurial spirit. We were not able to do that in past few centuries because of following two reasons:


1.Poor beginning of industrial era in India: The biggest factor, which is a true reason for not catching up is big, poor, uneducated, divided population, with extreme diversity. This is 100% true that during British Raj we lagged behind in education, healthcare, proper infrastructure. Low education and poverty catalyzed the prejudices, blind following, weak leadership, weak entrepreneurial spirit . As we all know health of economy depends on the population education, health, wellbeing. All these things were wiped out from Indian continent for about 200 years. Our literacy rates in early 90s were around 5–7%. At that time literary rate in Great Britain was 80%, USA was around 90%. Literacy Census India 1931: Literacy


2.Political corruption, bureaucracy, red tape: It is a real problem in India, and one of the big reason for slow economic growth rate. If we go back in time we will find that western countries used to have these problems. But at that time the world population, demand, and competition was minuscule. As demand kept on increasing, they kept changing and easing up the laws to boost production. They did not hurry up and grew organically. But its tricky with India because we had to catch up and learning curve is big. Economic reforms of 1991 was one example of slow learning curve.


印度技术确实落后,这背后是有重大原因的,技术需要资源、市场、强大的经济、政治意愿和创业精神。在过去几个世纪里,我们无法做到这一点,原因有二:


1.印度工业时代的开局不顺利:最大的原因,也是没有赶上工业化的真正原因,就是人口众多、经济贫困、教育程度低、人口分裂、极端多样化。在英国统治时期,我们在教育、医疗和基础设施方面落后了。教育水平地和贫困导致了偏见、盲从、领导力薄弱、企业家精神萎靡。众所周知,经济的健康取决于人口的教育、健康和福利。而这些已经在印度大陆上消失了大约200年。90年代早期我们的识字率大约是5-7%。当时英国的识字率是80%,美国大约是90%。1931年印度识字普查:识字。


2.政治腐败、官僚主义、繁文缛节:这是印度的一个现实问题,也是经济增长缓慢的一大原因。如果我们回到过去,我们会发现西方国家也曾经出现过这些问题。但那时世界人口、需求和竞争等问题都不突出。随着需求的不断增长,他们不断调整和简化法律,促进生产。他们可以从从容容,有序成长。但对印度来说这很棘手,因为我们必须迎头赶上,而且学习曲线很长。1991年的经济改革就是放缓学习曲线的一个例子。


Coming to the analyses of what happened with us:


We always blame the Britishers for our bad economy, and we should. Because you cannot revive an democratic economy without solving the social problems. Because in democracy the power is in the hand of citizens and if your citizens are rickety how can you build a robust growth. Government only work to help citizens to function well by providing them basic facilities, support, logistics to carryout their activities.


In our case only few people were educated and they saw a big nation full of resources and uneducated/underprivileged people who can work for them like slaves. This happened and nepotism became a culture in India, part of it we can still see in India. It became a habit of Indians and I don't blame Indians for that.


下面我们来分析一下发生在我们身上的事情:


我们总是把我们糟糕的经济归咎于英国人,我们确实应该这样做。因为如果不解决社会问题,就无法重振皿煮经济。在皿煮国家,权力掌握在公民手中,如果公民疲软无力,如何能实现强劲的经济增长?政府只能通过为公民提供基本设施、支持和后勤保障来帮助他们更好地开展活动。


在印度,只有少数人受过教育,他们看到一个充满资源的大国,没有受过教育的/贫困的人可以像奴隶一样为他们工作。于是,事情发生了,裙带关系成了印度的一种文化,我们仍然可以在印度看到这种文化。这成了印度人的习惯,我不怪印度人。


But the good news is that despite all these struggles we managed to educate out children, empower or females, removed taboo of cast from our society to an extent, revived entrepreneurial spirit in young Indians. Things are going down in right path and now we have the biggest population and eventually biggest economy. It would be a breeding ground for innovation, technology, science, medicine, arts.


We are preparing ourselves for 4th industrial revolution and on any cost we don't have to miss that bus. India will continue to have problems, but year by year we are getting rid of them. We will surely be the leaders in technology, which is evident from space technology. Not only space if we dig down we innovated much more in IT, technology, science, medicine. Patience is the key, we have big bright population, no one can replace us from being a future breeding ground of Innovation, we just need to keep growing GDP.


但好消息是,尽管有种种不利因素,我们还是成功地教育出了孩子,给妇女们权力,在一定程度上消除了社会对种姓的禁忌,重振了印度年轻人的创业精神。一切都正朝着正确的方向发展,现在我们拥有最庞大的人口,最终也成了最大的经济体。它将成为创新、技术、科学、医学和艺术的温床。


我们正在为第四次工业革命做准备,无论付出什么代价,我们都不能错过那班公共汽车。印度依然还会有这样那样的问题,但我们正一步步摆脱这些问题。我们一定会成为技术领域的引领者,这一点从太空技术中就可以明显看出。如果我们深入挖掘,不仅是太空,我们还在IT、技术、科学和医学领域进行了更多的创新。保持耐心是个关键,我们有大量聪明的人口,没有人能取代我们成为未来创新的温床,我们只需保持GDP的增长。


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