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中美两国的主要文化差异,外国网友:中国是一个以家庭为中心的国家

来源:  BBSGood社区    时间:2019-04-11 12:00:08   关注:191   转发


What are the main cultural differences between China and the USA?(2)


中美两国的主要文化差异是什么?(2)


茶


 以下是Quora读者的评论:


Jessica Bolin, Born and raised in the Mid-West USA


There are lots of differences of course, but I'll put down two that I've found the most surprising:


Giving Advice: In the United States, advice is usually given only when asked for or openly solicited in some way, some subjects should only be touched by close friends, and still other topics are so touchy that people never ever try to give advice about them as a social rule. In China it seems all bets are off. Giving advice in China is an expression of care and respect, and people will take any opportunity to constantly tell me what I should do. These would only be rude by American standards of course, but it's a shocker for Americans staying in China all the same.


Ice and other cold things: In America, restaurants will give you ice in a drink even if it's snowing outside. In China, there's only one type of water to get in winter, and that's hot water. I now find hot water to be a comfort especially in unheated Chinese restaurants, but initially I thought this strange tea-without-leaves to be a bit of an odd habit. I think it may be the propagation of indoor heating in the United States but we have no problem with even getting ice cream at -20, but in China most people would not go for that. Many Chinese people I have encountered in the PRC also have a sort of phobia about eating or drinking cold things at certain times; if you have a cold or are feeling under the weather, if you're a lady on her period, or if you've just had a baby, under no circumstances should you eat or drink cold things! These concerns do not exist in the United States.


两者之间当然有很多不同之处,但我只写两个我认为最令人惊讶的地方:


给人建议:在美国,人们通常只在被要求或公开征求意见的时候才会提出建议,有些话题只能跟亲密的朋友讨论,还有一些话题非常敏感,人们从来不会试图把对人提建议作为一种社会规则。在中国,给人建议是一种关心和尊重的表达,人们会抓住任何机会不断地告诉我应该做什么。当然,按照美国人的标准,这样做是不礼貌的,但对仍然生活在中国的美国人来说,这是令人震惊的。


冰和其他生冷的东西:在美国,即使外面在下雪,餐馆也会提供冰饮料。在中国,冬天只有一种水可以喝,那就是热水。现在我发现热水是一种安慰,尤其是在没有暖气的中餐馆,但最初我认为这种奇怪的看不到茶叶的茶很奇怪。我认为这可能是因为美国室内供暖的普及,我们甚至可以在零下20度买到冰激凌,但在中国,大多数人不会买。我在中国遇到的许多中国人在某些时候对吃或喝冷的东西也有一种恐惧症;如果你感冒了或者觉得不舒服,如果你来了例假,或者刚刚生完孩子,在任何情况下你都不能吃或喝冷的东西!这种担忧在美国并不存在。


 


Kev Bough, Been to Bejing, Shanghai, Hanzhou, Suzhou, Shenzhen, Macau, and Hong Kong.


-Chinese people work a lot harder, Americans are more laid back (especially certain groups).


-Chinese people really love hot drinks like tea. Although there are some Americans who drink hot too, most of them prefer cold drinks. Ask for a water in American restaurants and they give you lots of ice.


-China is racially more homogeneous. Black people in China is relatively uncommon, so they often attract attention. Many Chinese also have the habit of taking pictures with white people to show their friends they found a rare kind.


-In China it’s common to ask someone else’s income. It’s considered very offensive in the States.


-China has higher ‘fat’ standard. One might be considered very fat in China, but not so in the States.


-Americans say “thank you” a lot compared to Chinese.


-Most Chinese drivers like to skip red lights when they have the chance and wouldn’t mind so when there are pedestrians crossing. American drivers give pedestrians the right of way when they can.


-Chinese people don’t hold the door open when there’s a person behind. Americans do.


-Chinese people have higher respect for the elderly than in the States.


- Americans queue more patiently.


- China has higher standard for singers. In the States, autotune is a big thing.


-Chinese society is more competitive. Students study really hard, so you have to keep up in order to survive. That is why they often get good grades in the States.


译文来源:三泰虎   译者:Joyceliu


-中国人工作更努力,美国人更闲散(尤其是某些群体)。


-中国人真的很喜欢像茶这样的热饮。虽然也有一些美国人喝热饮料,但他们大多数人更喜欢喝冷饮。在美国餐馆里要水的话,他们会给你加很多冰。


-中国的种族更加单一。在中国,黑人相对而言较不常见,所以他们经常会吸引人们的目光。许多中国人也有与白人合影的习惯,向他们的朋友展示他们发现了罕见的人种。


-在中国,询问别人的收入是很平常的事。这在美国被认为是非常无礼的。


-中国对“肥胖”标准更高。一个人在中国可能被认为很胖,但在美国却一点也不胖。


-和中国人相比,美国人更喜欢说“谢谢”。


-大多数中国司机喜欢尽一切可能躲避红灯,就算有行人通过时他们也不管。美国司机会尽可能给行人让路。


-如果后面还有人,中国人不会帮别人顶住门。美国人会。


-中国人比美国人更尊重老人。


-美国人排队更耐心。


-中国对歌手要求更高。在美国,可以修音。


-中国社会的竞争更加激烈。学生们学习非常努力,所以为了生存你必须跟上。这就是为什么他们经常能在美国取得好成绩。


 


Isaiah Pablo


Lots depending on where you’re from.


1.Chinese culture puts emphasis on collectivism. The unity of the people is more important than the individual. In American culture, it’s the opposite. The individual is more important.


2.Harmony - Chinese culture puts emphasis on living in harmony with the universe. That’s why in Chinese paintings, you often see the bigger picture. In American paintings, the focus is often on one person or specific details. Living side by side with nature for example creates a better world and ensures survival. In American culture, you’re supposed to control nature. In doing so, America is destroying the planet from all the unnecessary buildings and pollution.


3.Truth - In Chinese culture, truth is given. If you’re an authority, people will listen to you. In American culture, truth is discovered. You have to search for it through science or other means.


4.Different foods - In Chinese culture, people no longer eat to survive. Food has become a very sophisticated art. It’s also healthy. In American culture, food is very simple. People are busy with work or school so fast food restaurants are common. As a result, it’s unhealthy.


5.Honesty - Chinese people like to save face. They don’t like confronting you because they don’t want to look bad. In American culture, it’s the opposite. Americans are very vocal.


6.One reality - In Chinese culture, everything is one reality. There’s no distinction between religion, spirituality, social life, etc. In American culture, everything is set into categories. There’s no mixing it. That’s why Americans keep their personal and professional lives separate. You don’t talk about religion or personal things on the job.


It seems alot of Chinese culture is becoming westernized nowadays so you’ll see it become closer to American culture


这取决于你来自哪里。


1.中国文化强调集体主义。人民的团结比个人更重要。在美国文化中,情况正好相反。个人更重要。


2.和谐——中国文化强调与宇宙和谐相处。这就是为什么在中国画中,你经常看到的是整体。而在美国绘画中,重点往往是一个人或特定的细节。在美国文化中,你应该控制自然。因此,美国正通过所有不必要的建筑和污染来摧毁地球。


3.真理——在中国文化中,真理是别人给予的。如果你是权威人士,人们就会听你的。在美国文化中,真理是被发现的。你必须通过科学或其他方法来寻找它。


4.不同的食物——在中国文化中,人们不再为了生存而吃。食物已经成为一门非常复杂的艺术。也很健康。在美国文化中,食物很简单。人们忙于工作或学校,所以快餐店随处可见。因此,这是不健康的。


5.诚信——中国人喜欢保全面子。他们不喜欢给你对立,是因为他们不想难堪。在美国文化中,情况正好相反。美国人很爱说话。


6.一个现实——在中国文化中,一切都是一个现实。宗教、精神、社会生活等之间没有区别。在美国文化中,一切都是分门别类了。不能混淆起来。这就是为什么美国人的个人生活和职业生活是分开的。在工作中不要谈论宗教或个人的事情。


现在很多中国文化似乎正在慢慢西化,所以你会看到中国文化越来越接近美国文化。


 


Louis Cohen, lives in the USA and follows the news and politics avidly


I believe that Americans in business meetings tend to be much more get-to-the-point direct. There would be a banquet afterwards only if a significant agreement were reached. I understand in China that the slightest occasion merits a banquet, perhaps even before serious negotiations begin. BTW, I am extremely fond of Chinese banquets.


There are different attitudes toward toward criminal justice. While many Americans, like I believe most Chinese, don’t care about the rights of criminal defendants, much less convicts, many Americans do.


我相信美国人在商务会议上更倾向于直截了当。只有在达成重要协议后才会举行宴会。而在中国,哪怕是最微不足道的事,也值得举办宴会庆祝,甚至会在正式谈判开始之前。顺便说一下,我非常喜欢中国的宴会。


人们对刑事司法有不同的态度。虽然很多美国人,就像我相信的大多数中国人一样,并不关心刑事被告的权利,更不用说罪犯了,但还是有很多美国人关心这种事的。


 


Park Bearum, Intern at Architecture Studio


There’s obv a lot but I’ll point out a few that really struck me.


1.The respect


Americans do respect each other,ofc that’s not what I’m implying here.What I mean is,American people tend to have very close relationships where they would sometimes address each other with their names and just be very intimate in general unlike the Asian culture.


The elderly is just very respected here.Theyre seen as the carriers of history,they represent wisdom and intelligence.They have very close relationships with their family,too but in a different way.


2.Amount of seriousness


Asian people are very serious about certain things,like grades,health and family unlike many westerners as at some point,they like to leave people as they are.


3.The group


Chinese people like to celebrate the existence of a group,they usually hang out with one unlike Americans as they’re fine as hanging out as individuals.


4.Being blunt


Chinese people are direct,they don’t hang around the bush they just tell you what they want straight away which saves time


差异有很多,但我想说的是一些真的触动到我的。


1、尊重


美国人确实互相尊重。我的意思是,美国人民往往有非常密切的关系,有时他们会直呼对方的名字,很亲密,这跟亚洲文化并不一样。


老年人在这里很受尊重,他们被视为历史的载体,他们代表着博学和智慧,他们与家人也有着非常密切的关系,但方式不同。


2.严肃认真


亚洲人对某些事情非常认真,比如学习成绩、健康和家庭。与许多西方人不同的是,在某种程度上,他们喜欢自然随缘。


3、小团体


中国人喜欢小团体,他们通常和小团体一起玩,这一点不同于美国人,他们喜欢个人与个人一起玩。


4、直率


中国人很直接,他们不会弯弯绕绕,他们会直接告诉你他们想要什么,这节省了时间。


 


Emily Spencer, A passionate learner that loves debating and dreaming xp


China has a much longer history of 5000 years of civilization and while USA has only got 236 years.


Throughout the 5000 years china has became a family orientated country with younger generation obeying the elder. Because of the log history, there has been a lot of rules and traditions that the Chinese have to follow.


The Americans were actually a bunch of immigrants, they rised from different cultures and ethnicity themselves, that's why they seem to be more open to new ideas in general, their creativity and open mindlessness create their culture.


中国有5000年的文明史,而美国只有236年。


在过去的5000年里,中国已经成为一个以家庭为中心的国家,年轻一代顺从长辈。因为历史悠久,中国有了很多制度和传统,中国人必须遵循。


美国人实际上是一群移民,他们来自不同的文化和种族,这就是为什么他们对新思想更为开放,他们的创造力和开放性思维创造了他们的文化。


 


Kouki Kohagura, studied at The United States of America


For me, it's family.


My dad's side of the family is Chinese, and very large and close-knit. They socialize like friends at a party, and when it comes to the elders, there is the "Keqi" which becomes super obvious at restaurants.


The younger relatives will desperately try to pay for the bill, and argue with the elder who keeps saying, "No, I'll pay!". This goes on for some minutes, unless the younger relatives manage to sneak the bill payment quickly, while the elder isn't looking...


I never see this in other peoples' families except Chinese. Even Japanese families do not have this(or at least not my mom's side which is Japanese).


Overall, family is top priority for everything with Asians. Rather than donating to charity, the preference is to give old stuff to relatives if they need it.


对我来说,不同之处就在于家庭。


我父亲那方的亲戚是中国人,非常庞大,关系密切。他们像聚会上的朋友一样进行社交活动,而谈到老年人时,在餐馆里“客气”的现象变得非常明显。


年轻的亲戚们会拼命地抢着付账,而年长的亲戚们则不停地说:“不,我来付账!”这种情况会持续几分钟,除非年轻的亲戚设法迅速地偷偷付好了账,没被年长的亲戚发现……


除了中国人,我在其他人的家庭中从未见过这种情况。即使是日本家庭也没有这种习惯(起码我妈妈那一方的日本亲戚不会这样)。


总的来说,对于亚洲人来说,家庭是最重要的。与其捐给慈善机构,不如把旧东西送给需要的亲戚。


 


Joel Gilleland, Fascinated by theology, mythology, and the paradox of free will.


Broad-brush stuff. I’m talking about overall culture, individuals will often differ.


America is a ‘me’ culture. The individual is the most important unit, then the family, then the community. There is an idea that the individual deserves success and respect.


China is an ‘us’ culture. The individual is often less important than the family and wider community. It is assumed that the individual must work hard to attain success and respect.


差异都是大方向上的。我说的是整体文化,个体之间往往存在差异。


美国文化是一种“自我”文化。个人是最重要的,其次是家庭,然后才是社区。有一种观点认为,个人应该获得成功和尊重。


中国文化是一种“集体”文化。个人往往没有家庭和更大的社群那么重要。中国人认为个人必须努力工作才能获得成功和尊重。


 


Larry John Page, works at Disability and Disabilities


Firstly food, where the similarities would make the comparing, as the Chinese seem to talk fast as they eat, Americans prefer to eat the cooking category as, Fast Food.


The infrastructure of cities and towns, whereby China has historical links, in America the historical links are broken to be a division of Native and United.


The languages in China are linked to ancestral sayings, whereas the English predominate in America means they are currently without a historical reference that is linked to the land.


首先是食物,可以对相似之处进行比较,因为中国人似乎在吃饭时说话很快,而美国人更喜欢吃快餐。


中国城镇的基础设施是连接起历史的纽带,而在美国,历史纽带被分为土著和合众两部分。


中国的语言与祖先的语言有关,而英语在美国占主导地位,意味着它们目前没有与这块土地有关的历史参考。


 


George Gonzalez, USA!, USA! most of the time, when we're not dropping bombs on poor browns.


Well in one sense, a lot-- the language, the food, the family structure, the religions, the music, the handshakes, the bows, the clothes, a lot.


But in another, more Kumbaya sense, not a lot-- everybody wants to live well, raise children, be respected, have a little fun, sleep, eat, screw, laugh, all pretty much the same things.


从某种意义上说,差异有很多——语言,食物,家庭结构,宗教,音乐,握手,鞠躬礼,服装等等很多。


但另一方面,这种差异并不算多——每个人都想生活得好,抚养孩子,受到尊重,找点乐子,睡觉,吃饭,尖叫,大笑,这一切几乎都一样相同。


 


Enrique Pareja, logical intuitionist.


You mean apart from the language, the food, the overall idiosyncrasy of the locals, the generally accepted ideas on the role of the individual vs. society (and on how that is applied in politics), the general framework of religion and moral beliefs, the importance given to the family and the social group, the general view of the world... and a few other things?


Apart from those "details"... not many, probably.


你的意思是,除了语言、食物、当地人的总体特性、人们普遍接受的关于个人与社会角色的观点、宗教和道德信仰的总体概念、对家庭和社群的重视程度、对世界的总体看法…还有其他一些事情?


除了那些“细节”…这种差异可能并不多。


 


Joe Belkin, An opinionated American.


In the US, customer service means u have can order and have it delivered to your doorstep without having to talk to anyone ... In China, customer service means 10 employees at your beck and call ...


在美国,客户服务意味着你可以在不与任何人交谈的情况下下单订购商品并派送。在中国,客户服务意味着10名员工随叫随到…


 


William Ranger, Lived her for several decades. Studied a lot.


Age.


Multiplicity of writing system.


Number of languages.


Number of cultures.


Food.


Level of culture.


Depth of philosophy.


年龄。


写作系统的多样性。


语言种类。


文化种类。


食物。


文化水平。


哲学的深度。


 


Stephen Connor


In America, the individual is the bedrock of social and cultural norms and goals.


In China, it is the group or community.


在美国,个人是社会和文化规范和目标的基石。


在中国,这个基石则是群体或社区。


 


Gary Sands, Lived in Shanghai 2006-2012, lives in Vietnam, written several articles on China


Bad American behavior is controlled by guilt, bad Chinese behavior is controlled by shame.


美国人的不良行为是受到内疚的控制,中国的不良行为受到羞耻心的控制。


 


Mas Miwa, former Engineer at Hughes Space and Communications


China: a team effort. United States: individualism.


中国:团队合作。美国:个人主义。


 


Matt Whitby, works at Historic England


If you ask someone in China whether they want a two litre coke with their Big Mac they could probably hold off


如果你问中国人是否想要一杯两升的可乐和巨无霸,他们可能会吓跑。


 


Robert Charles Lee, Printbroker, financial printer, ex-lawyer


Having grown up in 13 different countries around the world, I have to say the country-to-country cultural differences are not tremendously important.


More important is this:—


What are YOUR OWN cultural differences with those countries?


Trying to lay out the country-to-country differences would require a book-length survey — and only worthwhile for some kind of sociological study.


For the person living and working in those countries, it’s how we the person is taking to that country’s overall culture that’s more important.


我在世界上13个不同的国家长大,我不得不说,国家之间的文化差异并不那么重要。


更重要的是:


你与这些国家有什么文化差异?


想要找出国家之间的差异需要完成像书册一样厚的调查—而且只对某种社会学研究有价值。


对于在这些国家生活和工作的人来说,更重要的是他们如何融入这个国家的整体文化。


 


Richard I. Polis, Entrepreneur/Consultant


Probably the most important difference is that China is a classic high context society, whereas the U.S. is the exemplar of low context


可能最重要的区别是中国是一个典型的高语境社会,而美国是低语境的典范。


 


Ulzii Nergqui


If an American visits to any country in the world, they would probably miss their Mcdonalds’ chips.


If a Chinese visit to any country in the world, they would probably miss 3000years of culture.


美国人去其他国家玩,他们可能会想念他们的麦当劳薯条。


中国人去其他国家玩,他们可能会想念自己国家3000年的文化。


(内容译自美版知乎Quora)


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